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Abnormal activity in hypothalamus and amygdala during humour processing in human narcolepsy with cataplexy.

Schwartz S, Ponz A, Poryazova R, Werth E, Boesiger P, Khatami R, Bassetti CL.

Brain. 2008 Feb;131(Pt 2):514-22.


Abstinent alcoholics exhibit an exaggerated stress response to 2-deoxy-D-glucose challenge.

George DT, Lindquist T, Alim T, Flood M, Eckardt MJ, Linnoila M.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1994 Jun;18(3):685-91.


Activation of orexin neurons by acute nicotine.

Pasumarthi RK, Reznikov LR, Fadel J.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Mar 27;535(1-3):172-6.


Acute exercise modulates cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images: an fMRI study.

Janse Van Rensburg K, Taylor A, Hodgson T, Benattayallah A.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Apr;203(3):589-98. Epub 2008 Nov 18.


Adaptive sugar sensors in hypothalamic feeding circuits.

Williams RH, Alexopoulos H, Jensen LT, Fugger L, Burdakov D.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 19;105(33):11975-80. pdf


Allelic variation in key peptide-binding pockets discriminates between closely related diabetes-protective and diabetes-susceptible HLA-DQB1*06 alleles.

Ettinger RA, Papadopoulos GK, Moustakas AK, Nepom GT, Kwok WW.

J Immunol. 2006 Feb 1;176(3):1988-98.


Antinociceptive effects of stimulation of discrete sites in the rat hypothalamus: evidence for the participation of the lateral hypothalamus area in descending pain suppression mechanisms.

Franco AC, Prado WA.

Braz J Med Biol Res. 1996 Nov;29(11):1531-41.



Complex HLA-DR and -DQ interactions confer risk of narcolepsy-cataplexy in three ethnic groups.

Mignot E, Lin L, Rogers W, Honda Y, Qiu X, Lin X, Okun M, Hohjoh H, Miki T, Hsu S, Leffell M.

Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Mar;68(3):686-99. Epub 2001 Feb 13.


Control of hypothalamic orexin neurons by acid and CO2.

Williams RH, Jensen LT, Verkhratsky A, Fugger L, Burdakov D.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 19;104(25):10685-90.


Crystal structure of HLA-DQ0602 that protects against type 1 diabetes and confers strong susceptibility to narcolepsy.

Siebold C, Hansen BE, Wyer JR, Harlos K, Esnouf RE, Bell JI, Strominger JL, Jones EY, Fugger L.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Feb 17;101(7):1999-2004. full text


Decreased plasma orexin-A levels in obese individuals.

Adam JA, Menheere PP, van Dielen FM, Soeters PB, Buurman WA, Greve JW.

Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Feb;26(2):274-6.


Diet therapy for narcolepsy.

Husain AM, Yancy WS Jr, Carwile ST, Miller PP, Westman EC.

Neurology. 2004 Jun 22;62(12):2300-2.


Bisetti A, Cvetkovic V, Serafin M, Bayer L, Machard D, Jones BE, Mühlethaler M.

Neuroscience. 2006 Nov 3;142(4):999-1004.


Glucose-induced intracellular ion changes in sugar-sensitive hypothalamic neurons.

Silver IA, Erecińska M.

J Neurophysiol. 1998 Apr;79(4):1733-45.


Glucose regulates the release of orexin-a from the endocrine pancreas.

Ouedraogo R, Näslund E, Kirchgessner AL.

Diabetes. 2003 Jan;52(1):111-7. pdf


HLA-DQB1 allele and hypocretin in Korean narcoleptics with cataplexy.

Jeong JH, Hong SC, Shin YK, Han JH, Lee SP.

J Korean Med Sci. 2007 Feb;22(1):127-31.


Hypocretin and nicotine excite the same thalamocortical synapses in prefrontal cortex: correlation with improved attention in rat.

Lambe EK, Olausson P, Horst NK, Taylor JR, Aghajanian GK.

J Neurosci. 2005 May 25;25(21):5225-9.


Hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) facilitates inhibitory and diminishes excitatory synaptic pathways to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

Dergacheva O, Wang X, Huang ZG, Bouairi E, Stephens C, Gorini C, Mendelowitz D.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep;314(3):1322-7.

PMID: 15947034


Hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin): robust innervation of the spinal cord.

van den Pol AN.

J Neurosci. 1999 Apr 15;19(8):3171-82.


HLA and genetic susceptibility to sleepwalking.

Mol Psychiatry. 2003 Jan;8(1):114-7.
Lecendreux M, Bassetti C, Dauvilliers Y, Mayer G, Neidhart E, Tafti M.



Immune cross-reactivity in celiac disease: anti-gliadin antibodies bind to neuronal synapsin I.

Alaedini A, Okamoto H, Briani C, Wollenberg K, Shill HA, Bushara KO, Sander HW, Green PH, Hallett M, Latov N.

J Immunol. 2007 May 15;178(10):6590-5.

PMID: 17475890\


Insulin down-regulates expression of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) gene: effects on transcription and mRNA turnover.

Flores-Riveros JR, McLenithan JC, Ezaki O, Lane MD.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jan 15;90(2):512-6.


Intracisternal injection of orexin-A prevents ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats.

J Yamada H, Tanno S, Takakusaki K, Okumura T.

Gastroenterol. 2007 May;42(5):336-41.


Lateral hypothalamus: site involved in pain modulation.

Dafny N, Dong WQ, Prieto-Gomez C, Reyes-Vazquez C, Stanford J, Qiao JT.

Neuroscience. 1996 Jan;70(2):449-60.


Long-term changes in sleep and depressive symptoms of smokers in abstinence.

Moreno-Coutiño A, Calderón-Ezquerro C, Drucker-Colín R.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Mar;9(3):389-96.


Metabolism-independent sugar sensing in central orexin neurons.

González JA, Jensen LT, Fugger L, Burdakov D.

Diabetes. 2008 Oct;57(10):2569-76. Epub 2008 Jun 30. full text


Nicotine up-regulates expression of orexin and its receptors in rat brain.

Kane JK, Parker SL, Matta SG, Fu Y, Sharp BM, Li MD.

Endocrinology. 2000 Oct;141(10):3623-9.   pdf


Neural network of glucose monitoring system.

Oomura Y, Yoshimatsu H.

J Auton Nerv Syst. 1984 May-Jun;10(3-4):359-72. Review.


Orexigenic peptides and alcohol intake: differential effects of orexin, galanin, and ghrelin.

Schneider ER, Rada P, Darby RD, Leibowitz SF, Hoebel BG.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Nov;31(11):1858-65.


The orexin system regulates alcohol-seeking in rats.

Lawrence AJ, Cowen MS, Yang HJ, Chen F, Oldfield B.

Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jul;148(6):752-9.

PMID: 16751790


Orexin-A, an hypothalamic peptide with analgesic properties.

Bingham S, Davey PT, Babbs AJ, Irving EA, Sammons MJ, Wyles M, Jeffrey P, Cutler L, Riba I, Johns A, Porter RA, Upton N, Hunter AJ, Parsons AA.

Pain. 2001 May;92(1-2):81-90


Orexin-A (hypocretin-1) is possibly involved in generation of anxiety-like behavior.

Suzuki M, Beuckmann CT, Shikata K, Ogura H, Sawai T.

Brain Res. 2005 May 17;1044(1):116-21


Orexin receptor expression in human adipose tissue: effects of orexin-A and orexin-B.

Digby JE, Chen J, Tang JY, Lehnert H, Matthews RN, Randeva HS.

J Endocrinol. 2006 Oct;191(1):129-36. pdf


Persistent pain and stress activate pain-inhibitory orexin pathways.

Watanabe S, Kuwaki T, Yanagisawa M, Fukuda Y, Shimoyama M.

Neuroreport. 2005 Jan 19;16(1):5-8.

22. Dafny N, Dong WQ, Prieto-Gomez C, Reyes-Vazquez C, Stanford J, Qiao JT.


Pretreatment with subeffective doses of Rimonabant attenuates orexigenic actions of orexin A-hypocretin 1.

Crespo I, Gómez de Heras R, Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Navarro M.

Neuropharmacology. 2008 Jan;54(1):219-25.


Prevalence, characteristics, associated mental disorders and predictors of DSM-IV nicotine dependence.

Schumann A, Hapke U, Meyer C, Rumpf HJ, John U.

Eur Addict Res. 2004;10(1):29-34.


The role of hypothalamic peptide gene expression in alcohol self-administration behavior.

Pickering C, Avesson L, Liljequist S, Lindblom J, Schiöth HB.

Peptides. 2007 Dec;28(12):2361-71.


The relationship between tobacco use, substance-use disorders and mental health: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being.

Degenhardt L, Hall W.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2001 Aug;3(3):225-34


Sleepiness after glucose in narcolepsy.

Bruck D, Armstrong S, Coleman G.

J Sleep Res. 1994 Sep;3(3):171-179.


Smoking in eating disorders.

Anzengruber D, Klump KL, Thornton L, Brandt H, Crawford S, Fichter MM, Halmi KA, Johnson C,.

Eat Behav. 2006 Nov;7(4):291-9.


Strong Safety Signal Seen for New Varenicline Risks

The Institute for Safe Medication Practices


Tandem-pore K+ channels mediate inhibition of orexin neurons by glucose.

Burdakov D, Jensen LT, Alexopoulos H, Williams RH, Fearon IM, O'Kelly I, Gerasimenko O.

Neuron. 2006 Jun 1;50(5):711-22.



Orexins and gastrointestinal functions.  

Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2010 Mar;11(2):148-55.

Baccari BC.



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